If this is your first time buying a mattress, you may not be familiar with the many terms used to describe them. After all, there are modern mattresses made of everything from space-age gels to latex to camel hair. Some mattresses have innersprings, others are entirely foam, and many are hybrids—and all of these factors affect how firm or soft your mattress will be.
Understanding just what your mattress is made of, and how it is constructed, is key to finding the best fit for you. That means tracking down the mattress with just the right amount of firmness and support for your body type, durability needs, and preferred sleeping position.
The quality of your night’s sleep is heavily dependent on how much support you’re getting from your mattress, and one of the major factors in the quality of that support is the firmness scale. This numerical scale attempts to quantify comfort by describing how soft or firm a mattress is, on a scale from one to ten. It’s not an exact science—a mattress that feels downright plush to you may be firm-hard to someone else. The numerical scale of firmness, however, will let you know what to expect when you lie down on a mattress.
The support layers in a mattress tend to be toward the bottom, while the comfort layers are on the top, nearest to the body. The strength and quality of these base layers dictate how much the bed will sag and sink over time, in addition to how noisy it will be, and how quickly it absorbs and holds body heat.
The main support layer is usually the thickest part of the mattress and holds metal springs, high-density foam, latex, or air chambers. It may be a hybrid of these materials, and sometimes the whole layer is encased in high-density foam, or an additional base layer is added, for additional support. What materials are chosen for these layers are dependent on whether a mattress is meant to be on the softer or firmer end of the scale.
Ultimately, firm and soft mattresses have two different missions. Softness is all about comfort, while firmness is about bodily alignment.
A mattress with the right level of firmness for you will be comfortable and supportive enough that you’ll notice the difference. Effective support ensures that your weight is evenly distributed across the bed, and that your spine is aligned. The result is reduced pressure, which means waking up feeling refreshed instead of sore.
You will also feel the effects if your mattress is wrong for you. Too soft, and your spine can be misaligned, leading to hip and back pain. Too firm, and the heavier pressure points of your body will go unsupported.
Certain sleeping positions aggravate certain pressure points. Side sleepers, for instance, are more likely to feel pain in the hip and shoulder areas, because these regions are taking most of the weight. Back sleepers often deal with lower back pain. Softer layers of cushion toward the surface of the mattress, such as latex or memory foam, help relieve pressure. On the body. A mattress topper can also help.
Your body shape can also dictate whether a soft or firm mattress is better for you. Side sleepers with wider hips are better off with softer mattresses, say researchers at America’s Cleveland Clinic, so they can sink into the mattress and receive even support. Those with narrower hips that are more “straight up and down” will be better supported by a more rigid surface, because of the increased pelvis and lower spine support. Stomach sleepers will find that a mid-range, which can accommodate the body weight being placed on their bellies while still supporting their spines, is the best option. Back sleepers can afford to be less choosy, and will fare well on mattresses anywhere from medium-soft to firm.
Mattresses that relieve pressure are particularly important for those who spend longer periods of time in bed, such as those disabled and chronically-ill people.
Your sleeping position, how much support you’ll need for your pressure points, your body shape, your weight, your level of mobility, and more, all come into play when deciding how firm your mattress should be. It’s not just a case of typing into Google ‘what’s the best mattress for back pain?” This is especially true because the firmness scale is not standardized—much like clothing sizes, the meanings behind the numbers can vary greatly depending on the manufacturer.
Doing your research is worthwhile though. High-quality mattresses are made to last, so the right choice now will mean increased comfort for years to come.
The following scale is relatively standard across most popular mattress brands. It’s also subjective, and far from universal, so be sure to take these ratings with a grain of salt, and always test out a mattress yourself before you commit.
In order to reap the full benefits of a good night’s sleep, from improved mood to a stronger immune system, you need to find the right mattress. This involves considering what temperature you like to be while sleeping, whether your allergies might be exacerbated by certain materials, whether you have any monkeys jumping on your bed, and a range of other factors.
The technologies and terms on the market today can be dazzling and even overwhelming. Starting with the firmness scale will help give you a solid basis for figuring out what you need.